* Nigeria is a Cluster-like Sector response.


The Boko Haram insurgency in northeastern Nigeria, ‘banditry’ violence in the northwest, farmer/pastoralist conflict in the Middle Belt and a growing Cameroonian refugee population in the south have contributed to a complex humanitarian crisis. In southern Nigeria, different armed groups pushing for secession in the Southeast and control of the oil-producing Niger Delta have perpetrated waves of violence in these areas.?

An interplay of various factors drives the complex crisis in Nigeria. Socio-cultural dynamics characterised by a heterogeneous population with an underlying current of ethno-religious tension have led to division between northern and southern Nigeria. This often explodes into conflict whenever there is a trigger. Economic factors such as unemployment, high inflation and poverty also drive insecurity throughout the country, as some youth join criminal gangs and militant groups in a bid for economic survival. Environmental factors also lead to conflict due to climate change and increased competition for scarce land.?

Conflict in different parts of Nigeria has led to internal displacement of nearly 3 million people. More than 336,000 Nigerians have taken refuge in Cameroon, Chad, and Niger.? Livelihood activities such as farming and fishing have been disrupted by conflict, and contributed to food insecurity in Nigeria, particularly in the northwest.? The protracted conflict in the northeast and increased school abductions by armed gunmen in the northwest, have affected access to education and contributed to at least 18.5 million children out of school in 2022.?

INFORM measures Nigeria's risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be very high, at 6.5/10.?

Latest Developments

23/03: On 20 January, the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control declared a diphtheria outbreak in Kano and Lagos states. By 9 March, 21 states were affected, with more than 1,000 suspected cases and 62 deaths associated with confirmed cases. Kano state is the most affected, accounting for nearly 80% of all suspected cases. There is a need for hygiene sensitisation, expansion of vaccination programmes, additional testing equipment, and training of medical personnel on diphtheria testing.?

10/03: In 2021, 7.3 million women and girls in Nigeria of ages 15–49 were undernourished – a 30% increase compared to 2018. Undernourished women and adolescent girls face increased risks of fatal complications during pregnancy and childbirth because of weakened immunity. They are in need of nutrition assistance. Undernutrition remains a problem in the country at the same time that it experiences conflict, high levels of poverty, and a food crisis.?

Key Figures

Total population
People displaced
People in Need
Key figures are for the entire response and are not CCCM-specific.

INFORM Global Crisis Severity Index

Crisis Severity: 4.1

Impact: 4.5

Humanitarian Conditions: 4

Complexity: 4

Access Constraints: 4

The above scale is from 0 (Very low) to 5 (Very high)
Information courtesy of ACAPS. https://www.acaps.org/
Response Overview

Key Figures - 2021 HPC

in need
People targeted
Funding required


  1. Enhanced displacement management in camps and out of camp settings to ensure a protective environment through an effective flow of information to facilitate coordination and quality of integrated service provision.
  2. Enhance resilience and improved ability of communities and local partners to cope with displacement and ensure local ownership and self-governance through inclusive participation, gender mainstreaming and engagement of displaced persons.

HDX datasets

15 Common Operating Datasets or CCCM-tagged datsets are on the Humanitarian Data Exchange: